Agriculture Management System
Farm management can be defined as a science of decision making. innumerable decisions which a farmer has to make in the farming business are related with either cost minimizing problems or production maximizing problems, as the; farm profit depends upon the total costs .incurred in the farming. The main problems relating to cost minimizing may be mentioned as follows.A farmer has to decide about the size of the farm and the volume of business in such a way that it is neither too small to be uneconomic nor too large to be managed efficiently. In other words, a farmer would like to have a farm for which he is able to arrange various resources and has to incur the minimum fixed cost per unit of production.
PROJECT OUTPUT VIDEO:
In the past agriculture was considered only a mode of living where a farmer produced only those commodities which were needed for his family. But today the condition is different as the farming becomes a business and involves all the management principles like any other business. This booklet gives an introductory knowledge about farm management to help the fanners to understand the nature of farming.
The very concept of farm management has a fascinating appeal to the mankind as there is not a single creed which is not affected by this bread-butter subject. It is the study of farmer as a producer of food and other raw materials, who occupies a strategic position in the economic life of a country.
Farm management investigations give thrust and direction to farm business improvement by providing useful information to planners, farmers and extension workers. Better understanding of the sequential flow of new technology is provided by farm management research that contributes to more realistic projection potential. Again, basic information by farm management studies on specific farm projects such as land reclamation, irrigation and drainage, serves as an aid to formulate national policies.
In the context of socio-economic changes that are likely to occur as the wheels of economy of developing countries move to the closing years of the present century, there is likelihood of the emergence of problems of population explosion and scarcity of resources. But farm management has an inherent capacity of developing strategic approaches for making the best use of scarce-resources. Hence, there is bound to be far greater awareness and understanding of the role of farm management in the nations’ economy.
Looking at the farm structure as a whole, it is apparent that the objectives of farm management are to:
-study the existing resources, land, labour, capital, management and the production pattern on the farm;
-perform the strategic task of finding out the deviation of the resources from their optimum utilization;
-explain the means and procedure of moving from the existing combination of resources to their optimum use for profit maximization.
-outline conditions that would simultaneously obtain its objectives of profit maximization and family satisfaction through optimum use of resources and judicious income distribution; and
-work out costs and returns on individual enterprises and on the farm as a whole.
- Type of farming areas as a base
- Sampling framework
- Emphasis of small farms
- Farm planning
5 Multiple cropping
1.Type of farming areas as a base
A homogeneous area should be delineated for the study. This is because the input-output structure depends very much upon topographical, climatic and soil conditions. These homogeneous zones should form the basis of all location specific research and development. It is only after classification of different agro-climatic regions in the country into homogeneous type of farming areas, that the research and development efforts can be oriented towards solving specific problems, avoiding blanket recommendations and exploring the production potentialities of the areas effectively and economically.
It is important that the Agro-economic zones should be demarcated with respect to all types of enterprises, Thus in addition to general crop zones, the vegetable farming areas, oilseed belts, some commercial crop concentration like sugarcane around sugar mills, fruit zones, etc., be demarcated. Similarly, in states where diversification with such enterprises as dairy, poultry etc. are assuming critical importance, these should be taken into consideration. In addition, in areas where there are some specific problems like salinity and aIkalinity or flooding and water logging or brackish underground water which is unfit to be pumped out for irrigation, etc. these specific problem areas should be delineated separately.
- Sampling framework
The success of an objective study depends upon the appropriateness of sampling. In most of the estimation problems, the procedure of random sampling is recommended on the ground that a random sample is the only sample which can satisfy both the conditions of a good sample i.e. providing estimate of the character under study and the reliability of the estimate. Very little efforts have been made on the use of purposive sampling which can promote practical farm management research and increase the reliability of the estimate. Small farm samples are found to be better under Indian conditions due to existing heterogeneity In agrarian structure.
- Emphasis of small farms
The general structural weakness in the farm organisation in India has particular reference to the excessive human and bullock labour and inadequate capital and irrigation. Stemming from the preponderance of small farms in the Indian economy. Since the number of marginal and small holdings is increasing largely as a result of the subdivision of holdings and the growth of population, in the absence of commensurate growth in the diversification of rural economy, many more farm organizations might become further overstocked with farm machinery and bullock power. This warrants that the emphasis in farm management analysis should now shift to the small farm organizations.
With the introduction of divisible farm technology, some small holdings can be turned to viable economic units. There is enough experimental evidence to show that in the matter of adoption of such technological inputs such as high yielding varieties, small holdings hardly suffers from any structural constraints. However, size of the farm enters as a variable because farmers with smaller farms are usually disadvantaged in their access to research institutions and extension service, credit and yield increasing inputs.
There is a little doubt that large farmers make much more use of the advisory service than the small farmers. It is high time that the farm management service is oriented particularly to help small farmers.
- Farm planning
Farm planning approach is sometimes discarded by the extension workers just because they find it difficult to reach thousands of small farmers. Farm planning does not require planning of all the farms but it does require planning of basic types of farms. The analytical research projects which deal with small number of farms and describe their operations in much more detail would therefore, help in better management decisions and in rationalizing agricultural policy. With the basic objective of farm economic development at hand our efforts should be to help each farm operator, or at least a mode farm representative in terms of soil, climate, crop; technology and organization mix in an area. The center of our attention must be farm economic development by facilitating decision and practices by individual farm operators.
5 Multiple cropping
The practice of multiple cropping not only increases the alternatives and the scope for increasing farm incomes but also helps in the application of farm management principles. As farmers advance in their scientific knowledge, production skill and ability to organize and manage farming resources more effectively, they use these improved abilities for their whole farming operation and not just for the crops on which the government may have its eye.
The diversified farming model of Japan and Taiwan has made it possible to utilize labour better and reduce the impact of crop price fluctuation and yield variations. Multiple cropping and relay cropping techniques would be successful if the following conditions are satisfied:
-payoff -economic return; and
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